Friday, February 20, 2009

Buried under the French-Swiss border, the Large Hadron Collider has gotten its share of ink--and for good reason. Hearing about the sheer magnitude and price of what's been called the biggest and most expensive scientific experiment in human history is enough to instill fascination and excitement in even the most non-particle-physicists among us. Once it's running at full capacity, the project's researchers say, the $5.3 billion LHC, the biggest particle accelerator ever built, will be able to answer questions physicists never thought they'd get answers to, like why the universe formed the way it did and why matter has mass. Critics of the project say it could have the opposite effect, leading not to knowledge but instead humanity's demise.

Technicians plan to flip the switch on the collider this week, sending bunches of protons around the concrete tube dispersed with supercooled electromagnets, to create the very first collisions. Last month I visited CERN, the international nuclear research lab near Geneva that houses the LHC. The project's vital statistics jump out: an underground ring 16 miles in circumference will propel bunches of protons (about 100 billion at a time) around at almost the speed of light, more than 11,000 times per second. But it's an experiment unlikely to deliver its promised answers anywhere near as quickly as the protons are moving inside it.

From the beginning, a quick turnaround of findings was never the goal. It's fundamental, rather than practical, knowledge that researchers are after, as well as a suspected new particle called the Higgs boson (dubbed "The God Particle" for its potential to answer the most basic questions about existence, such as how anything came into existence) that could have unfathomable uses far into the future. Researchers liken the pursuit of the Higgs to the 1897 discovery of the electron, an atom's charged outermost particle. Its detection aided the harnessing of mass electricity, which has fueled core cultural components of the 21st century: the efficient lights we turn on, the TVs we watch and the phones we talk on. Another advance like that, CERN hopes, could be in store.

The collider will operate around the clock for nine months of the year: about 600 million collisions per second. Two floors of computer servers installed to measure LHC data will keep records of only a fraction of the collisions; the computers will discard the rest. There's also the style of explosion. Very few collisions are the same, so finding the most powerful ones that might show the existence of the Higgs particle or other unexpected effects will take time. By the estimate of Lyn Evans, the LHC's project head, big findings won't come for "a pretty long time." A junior researcher I spoke with was more descriptive. "It will definitely take months at a minimum--years, if nature is not kind to us," he said.

A bigger problem is likely to be collaboration. The number of scientists working collectively on each of the ring's four experiments--about 10,000--has made the project the biggest international collaborative research endeavor in history. It's certainly helpful to have so many qualified, knowledgeable voices, but the size of the roster also brings a downside. Ten thousand geographically dispersed scientists poring over loads of data means more, and longer, squabbling over whether a Higgs really is a Higgs. "We're very lucky to have so many voices on this project, but yes, there could be some extended debating," said James Gillies, head spokesperson for CERN. Even after scientists agree on what they see, it could take years of analysis to agree on what a finding means, and how someone could find a practical use for it.

Until the collider starts, there's plenty of debate to fill that gap. Walter Wagner, a researcher in Hawaii, started a group this year called Citizens Against the Large Hadron Collider, devoted to halting the machine's operation until more testing ensures its safety. "There is a real possibility of creating destructive theoretical anomalies such as miniature black holes, strangelets and deSitter space transitions," Wagner says in a statement on the group's Web site. "These events have the potential to fundamentally alter matter and destroy our planet."

CERN's top researchers see it differently. Says Evans, "Any physical collision that humans are capable of creating on earth has already been happening much more powerfully and frequently in the natural universe." Still, the prospect of creating loads of tiny but quickly growing alternate universes would certainly add a new allure to an experiment that's already pretty enthralling.

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

A visit to the different wild life sanctuaries gives one an idea of the rich wild life of India. The Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra is also home to a variety of wild animals and birds. Do make sure to make it a part of your tour itinerary of Maharashtra.
If you belong to the group who loves watching animal planet on television, is fond of reading about books on animals, is very keen on seeing these wild animals in their natural habitat and capturing those priceless moments on camera, then the Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary is definitely well worth a visit. You are sure to be amazed by the wide array of wild animals that have made the Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary their home.
The Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary covers an extensive area of 139.44 sq km and reserved forests form a major part of it. Patches of grasslands are found in this thick forest cover which is bordered in the west by the perennial Pranhita River.
The fauna of the Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary includes several exotic and endangered species. Some of the animals that can be sighted here are tigers, leopards, sloth bears, wild dogs and jungle cats in addition to reptiles like the famous Indian python and the common Indian monitar.

The list also includes inhabitants like wild boar, spotted deer, sambar, barking deer, blue bull, jungle cat, jackal, peacock, jungle fowl and flying squirrel. The greatest attraction however remains the Giant Indian squirrel which is the state animal of Maharashtra. Unfortunately its number is steadily on the decline.
It is best to visit the Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary between February and May. Other times of the year, the weather is too extreme and not conducive for a visit. A visit in the rainy season should definitely be avoided. The Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary is easily accessible from the important places of Maharashtra.

Naxal Attack In Gadchiroli

In a massive setback to the Maharashtra government’s counter-Naxal campaign, particularly in its eastern belt, a group of over 150 Naxals laid an ambush on a police party near the Markegaon village in Gadchiroli district bordering Chhattisgarh on 1 February resulting in the death of 15 policemen. Although Gadchiroli has been a hotbed of Maoists for a long time, the unprecedented scale of the attacks took the Maharashtra police by surprise. According to the central government’s Ministry of Home Affairs records, the state has witnessed a decline in Maoist activity and violence in the past years. What then explains the near-perfect execution of such a large attack? What are the implications of the attack and what are the likely outcomes of the attack on the nature of Naxal conflict in the state? The spread of Maoists in Gadchiroli along with its adjoining districts in Maharashtra is seen largely as a spillover from neighboring Naxal-affected districts of Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh with the terrain and demography of the region (over 90 per cent of Gadchiroli district is designated as forest area and has close to 40 per cent of its population made up of tribals) providing a fertile ground for the growth of Maoists. In recent times however, the Maoist cadre came under severe strain due to the dual strategy of the Maharashtra police – that of targeting the armed cadres while at the same time engaging with the local population through welfare programmes. Through sustained combing operations and surrender policy (implemented in August 2005), the Maharashtra police boasted of arresting at least 656 Naxalites including some of the top commanders of the outfit while securing the surrender of at least 320 since 2005, resulting in the winding down of many dalams. At the same time, programs like the Jan Jagran Abhiyan initiated activities like free medical services, cultural shows, sports activities, organized marriage ceremonies and camped with the villagers with the intention of breaking the support system of the Maoists among the villagers and winning their confidence and trust.Given this, do the attacks then reflect a desperate last attempt by the Maoists to make their presence felt or a manifestation of their revival in the region? A couple of factors indicate the latter. According to media reports, the CPI (Maoist) held a meeting sometime in early January and decided to merge its Maharashtra operations with the Dandakaranya cell in an attempt to revive their presence in the region. The fact that these attacks involved cadres from Chhattisgarh as confirmed by the local police lends credence to such reports. However, it seems unlikely that a joint plan to carry out the attacks was made and implemented in such a short duration, giving the impression that the efforts to combine the forces have indeed been ongoing for a while without the knowledge of the police. Coupled with this, several shortcomings in the government’s implementation of its counter-Naxal policies such as shortage of funds for the surrender schemes, further punctuate the police claims of success. This is also borne out by the betrayal of the ‘police informer’ who with false information, was able to lure the police into the jungle where the attack took place. What are the implications of the attacks? To begin with, this reflects a shift in the tactics of the Maoists in Maharashtra. In the past three years, their main target has been civilians including suspected police informers, surrendered Naxals, traders, and contractors. Attacks on security forces have however, recorded an upward trend since October 2008 with at least two Naxal attacks on police parties resulting in the death of four policemen. Second, a trend of joint operations between cadres from different states has been noted in some of their big attacks such as the Nayagarh attack in Orissa in February last year. This further complicates the fight against Maoists across the heartland with law and order being a state subject and highlights the need for a coordinated approach among the states. Lastly, this attack will propel the state to review its counter-Naxal policies likely pushing it towards a more belligerent stance against the Naxals. This in turn would imply that more violence can be expected from this region for it can be safely assumed that in carrying out this attack, the Naxals would have factored in the prospect of a crackdown by the state and are indeed prepared to engage with the state. In doing so, however, the state must take precautions in ensuring that its policies do not become part of the problem itself, as in the case of Chhattisgarh with Salwa Judum, and only ends up reinforcing the very factors that are sustaining the Naxal movement. The past few years has seen a systematic strengthening of the people’s war being waged and led by the CPI (Maoist). From Chhattisgarh in 2005-06 to Bihar-Jharkhand in 2006-07 and the Orissa-Andhra border in 2008, the people’s war has moved from the stage of mass mobilization to protracted armed struggle in these states. With the latest attacks, the possibility of a similar transition in Maharashtra cannot be ruled out.

History Of Gadchiroli District

Gadchiroli was a subdivision of the erstwhile district of Chandrapur and was carved out as a separate district of the state on 26th August, 1982. The district is located in the north-eastern part of the state bordering Durg, Rajnandgaon of newly created Chhattisgarh State on the east, Chandrapur on the west, Bhandara on the north and Karim Nagar, Adilabad of Andra Pradesh & Jagdalpur(Chhattisgarh State) on the South.The district is categorized as Tribal and undeveloped district and most of the land is covered with forest and hills. The main river basin of the district is Godavari which borders the southern boundary of the district and flows west to East. Due to proximity towards Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh it is worst affected by Naxalites taking shelters in the dense forest & hills of this district. The District Head-quarter is situated at Gadchiroli which is 180 Kms away from Nagpur and 80 Kms away from Chandrapur and 200 Km from Bhandara. The prime visiting places in Gadchiroli are: Shiv Temple at Markanda (Ta-. Chamorshi), Hanuman Temple at Chaprala (Ta- Chamorshi) and Markanda etc.

Gadchiroli District

Gadchiroli district was created on August 26, 1982 by bifurcating the Chandrapur district, which is part of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In ancient times the region was ruled by the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Yadavas of Deogiri and later the Gonds of Gadchiroli. In the 13th century Khandkya Ballal Shah founded Chandrapur. He shifted his capital from Sirpur to Chandrapur. Chandrapur subsequently came under Maratha rule. In 1853, Berar, of which Chandrapur (then called Chanda until 1964) was part, was ceded to the British East India Company. In 1854, Chandrapur became an independent district of Berar. In 1905, the British created the tehsil of Gadchiroli within Chandrapur. It was part of the Central Provinces till 1956, when with the reorganisation of the states, Chandrapur was transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, when the new state of Maharashtra was created, Chandrapur became a district of the state. In 1982 Chandrapur was divided, with Gadchiroli becoming an independent district.

Gadchiroli was a subdivision of the erstwhile district of Chandrapur and was carved out as a separate district of the state on 26th August, 1982. The district is located in the north-eastern part of the state bordering Durg, Rajnandgaon of newly created Chhattisgarh State on the east, Chandrapur on the west, Bhandara on the north and Karim Nagar, Adilabad of Andra Pradesh & Jagdalpur(Chhattisgarh State) on the South.The district is categorized as Tribal and undeveloped district and most of the land is covered with forest and hills. The main river basin of the district is Godavari which borders the southern boundary of the district and flows west to East. Due to proximity towards Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh it is worst affected by Naxalites taking shelters in the dense forest & hills of this district. The District Head-quarter is situated at Gadchiroli which is 180 Kms away from Nagpur and 80 Kms away from Chandrapur and 200 Km from Bhandara. The prime visiting places in Gadchiroli are: Shiv Temple at Markanda (Ta-. Chamorshi), Hanuman Temple at Chaprala (Ta- Chamorshi) and Markanda etc.

Coal Mining

The most economical method of coal extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams, and also the geology and environmental factors of the area being mined.
If the coal seams are near the surface, the coal is extracted by either:
strip mining, in which coal is exposed by the advancement of an open pit or strip. As the coal is exposed and extracted the overburden from the still covered coal fills the former pit, and strip progresses.
However most coal seams are too deep underground for open cast mining. Most coal is extracted by either:
bord and pillar, Here mining progresses along the seam, pillars are left to support the roof. These pillars may be removed on retreat allowing the roof to cave in. This method of mining is used principally in the U.S.A.
long wall mining, Here mining is conducted along the seam with the use of self-advancing hydraulic roof supports known as "chocks" or "shields". These supports are placed in a line (up to 400 meters long), known as a "long wall" and as coal is removed from in front of the long wall, the supports are advanced. As the long wall advances, the cavity created behind the longwall known as "the goaf" caves in. Longwall mining is the principle method of underground mining in Australia.
Other methods of mining include continuous highwall mining and highwall auger mining. These methods are generally applied in an open cast mine, once open cut mining becomes uneconomic.
Coal mining historically, has been a very dangerous activity. Open cut hazards are principally slope failure, underground mining roof collapse and gas explosions. Most of these risks can be greatly reduced in modern mines, and multiple fatality incidents are now rare in the developed world. Improvements in mining methods i.e. longwall mining, gas drainage and ventilation have reduced many of these risks. In lesser developed countries, thousands still die in coal mines. China in particular is the world leader in coal mining related deaths, with official estimates of around 6000 fatalities in 2004. Unofficial estimates place the figure much higher, at around 20,000 deaths. China is also the world leader in coal production and consumption.
Chronic lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis are common to miners, causing a reduced life-expectancy for those in the occupation.
The oldest continuously worked deep-mine in Britain and possibly the world is Tower Colliery at the northern end of the south Wales valleys. This colliery was started in 1805 and at the end of the 20th century it was bought out by its miners rather than allow it to be closed.
Coal mining frequently causes significant adverse environmental impacts. Strip mining typically destroys most environmental value in the land through which it passes. All forms of mining are likely to generate areas where coal is stacked and where the coal has significant sulfur content, such coal heaps generate highly acidic metal rich drainage when exposed to normal rainfall. These liquors can cause severe environmental damage to receiving water-courses. In addition, the waste heaps are subject to slipping, as in the Aberfan disaster which killed 144 people in 1966.


COAL is the most important and abundant fossil fuel in India. It accounts for 55% of the country's energy need. The country's industrial heritage was built upon indigenous coal.
Commercial primary energy consumption in India has grown by about 700% in the last four decades. The current per capita commercial primary energy consumption in India is about 350 kgoe/year which is well below that of developed countries. Driven by the rising population, expanding economy and a quest for improved quality of life, energy usage in India is expected to rise around 450 kgoe/year in 2010. Considering the limited reserve potentiality of petroleum & natural gas, eco-conservation restriction on hydel project and geo-political perception of nuclear power, coal will continue to occupy centre-stage of India 's energy scenario.
With hard coal reserves around 246 billion tonnes, of which 92 billion tonnes are proven, Indian coal offers a unique ecofriendly fuel source to domestic energy market for the next century and beyond. Hard coal deposit spread over 27 major coalfields, are mainly confined to eastern and south central parts of the the country. The lignite reserves stand at a level around 36 billion tonnes, of which 90 % occur in the southern State of Tamil Nadu.
Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. It is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock. It is composed primarily of carbon and hydrocarbons, along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. Often associated with the Industrial Revolution, coal remains an enormously important fuel and is the most common source of electricity world-wide. In the INDIA, for example, the burning of coal generates over half the electricity consumed by the nation.

CSTPS – The Making

Second stage was sanctioned in 1976 and then the entral Energy Minister Shri K. C Pant laid the foundation stone on 16 Jan 1977. The September 0f 1977 saw the biggining of civil work . The first set of 210 MW unit was commissioned in Aug. 1983. and 2nd in Jul 1984. The first unit was dedicated to the nation on 8th Oct 1984 by the then Hon. Prime Minister Late Smt Indira Gandhi. .


CSTPS is the biggest pit head Thermal Power Station of the Maharashtra State Electricity Board and the Giants in India among all state Electricity Board. The location Of power station is at 6 Kms from Chandrapur City . Once a backward and now a fast developing city District of Maharashtra. The Power station complex is on the way to the famous Tadoba National Park .

The emergence of CSTPS as the biggest pit Head Power Station in the country as put MSEB one step forward in its endover to lead in power generation and Distribution among the state Electricity Boards of India . Thus embarking of the 500 MW units to be consider as modern venture of MSEB and first among all SEB’s

This giant project having ultimate capacity of 2340 MW .

Conservation History Of Tadoba

Tadoba-Andhari Tiger reserve was created in 1995. The area of the Reserve is 625.40 sq. km. This includes Tadoba National Park, created in 1955 with an area of 116.55 sq. km. and Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary created in 1986 with an area of 508.85 sq. km. The Reserve is constituted with 577.96 sq. km. Reserve Forest, 32.51 sq. km. Protected Forest and 14.93 sq. km. other areas.

Tadoba - Andhari Tiger Reserve

Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve is the pristine and unique eco-system situated in the Chandrapur district of the Maharashtra State of India. The Reserve contains some of the best of forest tracks and endowed with rich biodiversity. It is famous for its natural heritage. Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve is the second Tiger Reserve in the State.

Maharashtrabhushan - BABA AMTE

Murlidhar Devidas Amte was born on December 24, 1914 in Hingaighat, Wardha. "He came to be known as Baba not because he is a saint or any such thing, but because his parents addressed him by that name," reveals Sadhanatai, his wife.

The seeds of social activism were sown early. Belonging to a family of brahmin jagirdars, regardless of his parents's disapproval, Baba Amte often ate with servants and played with lower caste children. As a nine-year-old, he was so moved by the sight of a blind beggar that he dropped a handful of silver coins in his bowl.
He studied law and started a lucrative practice in Wardha, but was appalled by the poverty in his family estate in the Chandrapur district of Maharashtra. He relinquished his robes and began working with sweepers and carriers of night soil.

He married Sadhana Guleshastri in 1946. He was touched when he saw her leave a wedding party to help an old servant. "I went to her house and told her parents that I was the suitable groom for her," he quips.


No major changes occurred in the boundaries of the district or its tehsils between 1911-1955. Consequent upon reorganization of the states in 1956, the district was transferred from Madhya Pradesh to Bombay state. In the same Rajura tehsil, a part of Adilabad district of Hydrabad state, was transferred to Nanded district subsequently it was transferred to Chandrapur district in 1959. the district became part of the Maharashtra since its creation in May 1960. For administrative convenience and industrial and agricultural development , this district was again divided into Chandrapur and Gadchiroli district after 1981 census. Chandrapur district now comprises of the tehsil of Chandrapur , Bhadravati, Warora, Chimur, Nagbhir, Bramhpuri, Sindhewahi, Mul, Gondpipri, Pomburna, Saoli, Rajura, Korpana, Jivati and Balharshah.

Veer Shah, Chandrapur

In 1854, Chandrapur formed and independent district and in 1874, it comprised of three tehsils Viz Mul, Warora and Bramhpuri. In 1874, however, upper Godavai district of Madras was abolished and four tehsils were added to Chandrapur to form one tehsil with Sironcha as its headquarters. In 1895, the headquarters of one tehsil transferred to MUl to Chandrapur. A new tehsil with headquarter at Gadchoroli was created in 1905 by transfer of zamindari estates from Bramhpuri and Chandrapur tehsil. An small zamindari tract from Chandrapur district as transferred to newly from districts in 1907. In the same year and area of about 1560 sq. km. comprising of three divisions of the lower Sironcha tehsil namely Cherla, Albak nad Nugir were transferred to Madras State.

Anchaleshwar Temple Chandrapur

The district Chandrapur was earlier known as 'Chanda' according to tradition and legend the name of the place was 'Lokapura' which was first changed to ' Indpur' and subsequently to Chandrapur. During the British colonial period it was called Chanda district, which was again changed to its original name 'Chandrapur ' around 1964. Other places of the region in ancient times include wairangad, Kosala, Bhadravati and Markanda. Hindu and Buddhist kings are said to have ruled the area for a long time, Later on Gonds overtook Dana Chiefs who ruled Chandrapur around 9 th century and Gond Kings ruled the area till 1751 after which Maratha period started. Raghuji Bhosale, the last King of the dynasty, died heirless in 1853 and Nagpur province together with Chandrapur was declared annexed to British Empire.

History Of Nagpur City

Human existence around present day Nagpur city can be traced back 3000 years to 8th century BC. Mehir burial sites at Drugdhamna(near Mhada colony) indicate megalithic culture existed around Nagpur and is still followed in present times[8]. The first reference to the name Nagpur is found in a 10th century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring Wardha district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the visaya (district) of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during time of Rastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862 (940 CE). [9] Towards the end of third century King Vindhyasakti is known to have ruled the Nagpur region. In the 4th century Vakataka Dynasty ruled over the Nagpur region and surrounding areas and had good relations with the Gupta Empire. The Vakataka king Prithvisena I moved his capital to Nagardhan (ancient name Nandivardhana), located at 28 kilometers (17 mi) from Nagpur.[10]
Recent history ascribes the founding of Nagpur to Bakht Buland, a prince of the Gond kingdom of Deogarh in the Chhindwara district. In 1743, the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhonsle of Vidarbha established himself at Nagpur, after conquering the territories of Deogarh, Chanda and Chhattisgarh by 1751. After Raghoji's death in 1755, his son and successor Janoji was forced to acknowledge the effective supremacy of the Maratha Peshwa of Pune in 1769. Regardless, the Nagpur state continued to grow. Janoji's successor Mudhoji I (d. 1788) came to power in 1785 and bought Mandla and the upper Narmada valley from the Peshwa between 1796 and 1798, after which Raghoji II (d. 1816) acquired Hoshangabad, the larger part of Saugor and Damoh. Under Raghoji II, Nagpur covered what is now the east of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.
In 1803 Raghoji II joined the Peshwas against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The British prevailed, and Raghoji was forced to cede Cuttack, Sambalpur, and part of Berar. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was deposed and murdered by Mudhoji II. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British, but was forced to cede the rest of Berar to the Nizam of Hyderabad, and parts of Saugor and Damoh, Mandla, Betul, Seoni and the Narmada valley to the British after suffering a defeat at Sitabuldi in modern-day Nagpur city. The Sitabuldi fort was the site of a fierce battle between the British and the Bhonsle of Nagpur in 1817. The battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhonsles and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city.[11]Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the British placed Raghoji III the grandchild of Raghoji II, on the throne. During the rule of Raghoji III (which lasted till 1840), the region was administered by a British resident. In 1853, the British took control of Nagpur after Raghoji III died without leaving an heir.
From 1853 to 1861, the Nagpur Province (which consisted of the present Nagpur region, Chhindwara, and Chhatisgarh) became part of the Central Provinces and Berar and came under the administration of a commissioner under the British central government, with Nagpur as its capital. Berar was added in 1903. Tata group started the country's first textile mill at Nagpur[12], formally known as Central India Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd. The company was popularly known as "Empress Mills" as it was inaugurated on 1 January 1877, the day queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. Political activity in Nagpur during India's freedom struggle included hosting of two annual sessions of the Indian National Congress. Non-cooperation movement was launched in the Nagpur session of 1920. City witnessed a Hindu–Muslim riot in 1923 which had profound impact on K. B. Hedgewar.[13] In 1925, he founded RSS, a Hindu nationalist organization, in Nagpur with an idea of creating a Hindu nation. After the 1927 Nagpur riots RSS gained further popularity in Nagpur and the organization grew nationwide.
After Indian Independence in 1947, Central Provinces and Berar became a province of India, and in 1950 became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, again with Nagpur as its capital. However when the Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines in 1956, the Nagpur region and Berar were transferred to Bombay state, which in 1960 was split between the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. At a formal public ceremony on October 14, 1956 in Nagpur B. R. Ambedkar along with his supporters converted to Buddhism starting Dalit Buddhist movement which is still active. In 1994, city witnessed its most violent day in modern times in form of Gowari stampede deaths.Also see: Nagpur state